Publications

Take a deeper look into all the publications produced by researchers at The Dartmouth Institute.

Elwyn G, Ryan P, Blumkin D, Weeks WB

2024 Jun 12;pii: bmjebm-2023-112651. doi: 10.1136/bmjebm-2023-112651

BMJ Evid Based Med|2024 Jun 12

Howard EC, Murray Horwitz ME, Gunn CM, Bak S, Nelson KP, Morton S, Flacks-Dunning JG, Battaglia TA

2024 Jun 8;doi: 10.1007/s10549-024-07389-5

Unmet social needs pose barriers to cancer care, contributing to adverse outcomes and health inequities. A better understanding of how social needs change after cancer diagnosis can inform more effective, equity-focused interventions.

Breast Cancer Res Treat|2024 Jun 8

Carlos HA, Weiss JE, Carter B, Akré EL, Diaz A, Loehrer AP

2024 Jun 5;doi: 10.1007/s11524-024-00883-7

The role of historic residential redlining on health inequities is intertwined with policy changes made before and after the 1930s that influence current neighborhood characteristics and shape ongoing structural racism in the United States (U.S.). We developed Neighborhood Trajectories which combine historic redlining data and the current neighborhood socioeconomic characteristics as a novel approach to studying structural racism. Home Owners' Loan Corporation (HOLC) neighborhoods for the entire U.S. were used to map the HOLC grades to the 2020 U.S. Census block group polygons based on the percentage of HOLC areas in each block group. Each block group was also assigned an Area Deprivation Index (ADI) from the Neighborhood Atlas®. To evaluate changes in neighborhoods from historic HOLC grades to present degree of deprivation, we aggregated block groups into "Neighborhood Trajectories" using historic HOLC grades and current ADI. The Neighborhood Trajectories are "Advantage Stable"; "Advantage Reduced"; "Disadvantage Reduced"; and "Disadvantage Stable." Neighborhood Trajectories were established for 13.3% (32,152) of the block groups in the U.S., encompassing 38,005,799 people. Overall, the Disadvantage-Reduced trajectory had the largest population (16,307,217 people). However, the largest percentage of non-Hispanic/Latino Black residents (34%) fell in the Advantage-Reduced trajectory, while the largest percentage of Non-Hispanic/Latino White residents (60%) fell in the Advantage-Stable trajectory. The development of the Neighborhood Trajectories affords a more nuanced mechanism to investigate dynamic processes from historic policy, socioeconomic development, and ongoing marginalization. This adaptable methodology may enable investigation of ongoing sociopolitical processes including gentrification of neighborhoods (Disadvantage-Reduced trajectory) and "White flight" (Advantage Reduced trajectory).

J Urban Health|2024 Jun 5

Harris MT, Weinberger E, O'Brien C, Althoff M, Paltrow-Krulwich S, Taylor JL, Judge A, Samet JH, Walley AY, Gunn CM

2024 Jun 3;19(1):47doi: 10.1186/s13722-024-00476-4

Women who engage in sex work and use drugs (WSWUD) experience disproportionate HIV risks. Substance use treatment bridge clinics offer an opportunity to increase HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) delivery to WSWUD, but research on best practices is lacking. Therefore, we explored facilitators and barriers to PrEP across the PrEP care continuum in these settings.

Addict Sci Clin Pract|2024 Jun 3

Dev A, Nagovich J, Maganti S, Vitale E, Blunt H, Allen SE

2024 Jun 3;10(1):11doi: 10.1186/s40748-024-00181-9

The risk of recurrent adverse birth outcomes has been reported worldwide, but there are limited estimates of these risks by social subgroups such as race and ethnicity in the United States. We assessed racial and ethnic disparities in the risk of recurrent adverse birth outcomes, including preterm birth, low birthweight, fetal growth restriction, small for gestational age, stillbirth, and neonatal mortality in the U.S.

Matern Health Neonatol Perinatol|2024 Jun 3

Meghani SH, Mooney-Doyle K, Barnato A, Colborn K, Gillette R, Harrison KL, Hinds PS, Kirilova D, Knafl K, Schulman-Green D, Pollak KI, Ritchie CS, Kutner JS, Karcher S

2024 May 31;pii: S0885-3924(24)00797-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2024.05.027

Data sharing is increasingly an expectation in health research as part of a general move toward more open sciences. In the United States, in particular, the implementation of the 2023 National Institutes of Health Data Management and Sharing Policy has made it clear that qualitative studies are not exempt from this data sharing requirement. Recognizing this trend, the Palliative Care Research Cooperative Group (PCRC) realized the value of creating a de-identified qualitative data repository to complement its existing de-identified quantitative data repository. The PCRC Data Informatics and Statistics Core leadership partnered with the Qualitative Data Repository (QDR) to establish the first serious illness and palliative care qualitative data repository in the U.S. We describe the processes used to develop this repository, called the PCRC-QDR, as well as our outreach and education among the palliative care researcher community, which led to the first ten projects to share the data in the new repository. Specifically, we discuss how we co-designed the PCRC-QDR and created tailored guidelines for depositing and sharing qualitative data depending on the original research context, establishing uniform expectations for key components of relevant documentation, and the use of suitable access controls for sensitive data. We also describe how PCRC was able to leverage its existing community to recruit and guide early depositors and outline lessons learned in evaluating the experience. This work advances the establishment of best practices in qualitative data sharing.

J Pain Symptom Manage|2024 May 31

Otto-Moudry R, Kinney LM, Butcher RL, Blasdel G, Brown LK, Elwyn G, Myers JB, Turco JH, Nigriny JF, Moses RA

2024 May;12(5):e5840doi: 10.1097/GOX.0000000000005840

Metoidioplasty and phalloplasty gender-affirming surgery (MaPGAS) is increasingly performed and requires patients to make complex decisions that may lead to decisional uncertainty. This study aimed to evaluate decisional conflict in individuals considering MaPGAS.

Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open|2024 May

Krafcik BM, Gladders B, Jarmel I, Moore K, Cai M, Fowler X, Suckow BD, Stone DH, Columbo JA, Davies L, Goodney PP

2024 May 28;pii: S0890-5096(24)00244-9. doi: 10.1016/j.avsg.2024.03.025

The COVID-19 pandemic necessitated postponement of vascular surgery procedures nationally. Whether procedure volumes have since recovered remains undefined. Therefore, our objective was to quantify changes in procedure volumes and determine whether surgical volume has returned to its pre-pandemic baseline.

Ann Vasc Surg|2024 May 28

Rand LZG, McGraw S, Wang J, Woloshin S, Wang SV, Darrow J, Kesselheim AS

2024 May 30;doi: 10.1111/jgs.19015

J Am Geriatr Soc|2024 May 30

Rodriguez HP, Berube AD, Hung DY, Shortell SM, Fisher ES

2024 May-Jun;22(3):233-236doi: 10.1370/afm.3100

This study characterized adult primary care medical assistant (MA) staffing. National Survey of Healthcare Organizations and Systems (n = 1,252) data were analyzed to examine primary care practice characteristics associated with MA per primary care clinician (PCC) staffing ratios. In 2021, few practices (11.4%) had ratios of 2 or more MAs per PCCs. Compared with system-owned practices, independent (odds ratio [OR] = 1.76, <0.05) and medical group-owned (OR = 2.09, <0.05) practices were more likely to have ratios of 2 or more MAs per PCCs, as were practices with organizational cultures oriented to innovation ( <0.05). Most primary care practices do not have adequate MA staffing.

Ann Fam Med|2024 May-Jun

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